Annotated Bibliography

CCSSE Annotated Bibliography

Extensive research has identified educational practices directly related to student retention and other desired student outcomes. The Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) builds on this research and asks students about their college experiences — how they spend their time; what they feel they have gained from their classes; how they assess their relationships and interactions with faculty, counselors, and peers; what kinds of work they are challenged to do; how the college supports their learning; and more.

CCSSE benchmarks are groups of conceptually related survey items that focus on institutional practices and student behaviors that promote student engagement—and that are positively related to student learning and persistence. The five benchmarks of effective educational practice in community colleges are active and collaborative learning, student effort, academic challenge, student-faculty interaction, and support for learners.

The CCSSE annotated bibliography is organized by the five benchmark areas, with relevant research in each area explored.

 

Active and Collaborative Learning

Students learn more when they are actively involved in their education and have opportunities to think about and apply what they are learning in different settings. Through collaborating with others to solve problems or master challenging content, students develop valuable skills that prepare them to deal with the kinds of situations and problems they will encounter in the workplace, the community, and their personal lives.

CCSSE Items

4a Frequency: Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions
4b Frequency: Made a class presentation
4f Frequency: Worked with other students on projects during class
4g Frequency: Worked with other classmates outside of class to prepare class assignments
4h Frequency: Tutored or taught other students (paid or voluntary)
4i Frequency: Participated in a community-based project (service-learning activity) as part of a regular course
4q Frequency: Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with others outside of class (students, family members, co-workers, etc.)

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Student Effort

Students' behaviors contribute significantly to their learning and the likelihood that they will attain their educational goals. "Time on task" is a key variable, and there are a variety of settings and means through which students may apply themselves to the learning process.

CCSSE Items

4c Frequency: Prepared two or more drafts of a paper or assignment before turning it in
4d Frequency: Worked on a paper or project that required integrating ideas or information from various sources
4e Frequency: Come to class without completing readings or assignments
6b Number of books read on your own (not assigned) for personal enjoyment or academic enrichment
10a Hours spent per week: Preparing for class (studying, reading, writing, rehearsing, doing homework, etc.)
12d1 Frequency of use: Peer or other tutoring
12e1 Frequency of use: Skill labs (writing, math, etc.)
12h1 Frequency of use: Computer lab)

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Academic Challenge

Challenging intellectual and creative work is central to student learning and collegiate quality. Ten survey items address the nature and amount of assigned academic work, the complexity of cognitive tasks presented to students, and the standards faculty members use to evaluate student performance.

CCSSE Items

4o Frequency: Worked harder than you thought you could to meet an instructor's standards or expectations
5b Amount of emphasis in coursework: Analyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory
5c Amount of emphasis in coursework: Forming a new idea or understanding from various pieces of information
5d Amount of emphasis in coursework: Making judgments about the value or soundness of information, arguments, or methods
5e Amount of emphasis in coursework: Applying theories or concepts to practical problems or in new situations
5f Amount of emphasis in coursework: Using information you have read or heard to perform a new skill
6a Number of assigned textbooks, manuals, books, or book-length packs of course readings
6c Number of written papers or reports of any length
7 Rate the extent to which your examinations have challenged you to do your best work
9a Amount of emphasis by college: Encouraging you to spend significant amounts of time studying

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Student-Faculty Interaction

In general, the more interaction students have with their teachers, the more likely they are to learn effectively and persist toward achievement of their educational goals. Personal interaction with faculty members strengthens students' connections to the college and helps them focus on their academic progress. Working with an instructor on a project or serving with faculty members on a college committee lets students see first-hand how experts identify and solve practical problems. Through such interactions, faculty members become role models, mentors, and guides for continuous, lifelong learning.

CCSSE Items

4j Frequency: Used e-mail to communicate with an instructor
4k Frequency: Discussed grades or assignments with an instructor
4l Frequency: Talked about career plans with an instructor or advisor
4m Frequency: Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with instructors outside of class
4n Frequency: Received prompt feedback (written or oral) from instructors on your performance
4p Frequency: Worked with instructors on activities other than coursework

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Support for Learners

Students perform better and are more satisfied at colleges that are committed to their success and cultivate positive working and social relationships among different groups on campus. Community college students also benefit from services targeted to assist them with academic and career planning, academic skill development, and other areas that may affect learning and retention.

CCSSE Items

9b Amount of emphasis by college: Providing the support you need to help you succeed at this college
9c Amount of emphasis by college: Encouraging contact among students from different economic, social, and racial or ethnic backgrounds
9d Amount of emphasis by college: Helping you cope with your non-academic responsibilities (work, family, etc.)
9e Amount of emphasis by college: Providing the support you need to thrive socially
9f Amount of emphasis by college: Providing the financial support you need to afford your education
12a1 Frequency of use: Academic advising/planning
12b1 Frequency of use: Career counseling

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Center for Community College Student Engagement
—a Research and Service Initiative—
Program in Higher Education Leadership | Department of Educational Leadership and Policy  | College of Education
The University of Texas at Austin
Comments to: webmaster@cccse.org